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Questions and Concerns

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Santiago Rivera
Santiago Rivera

Download File StraEP.rar

But since I did not found a solution on reading a .rar file into system memory I am working with a tmp directory. The extracting of the .rar files is working flawless as far as I can tell with my test.rar file. But the downloading of the .rar file and writing it to the current working directory is not working correctly. I get empty .rar files even doh the size is almost correct about 1kb difference.

Download File StraEP.rar

To get the most out of this tutorial, you should know the basics of working with files, using the with statement, handling file system paths with pathlib, and working with classes and object-oriented programming.

PKWARE is the company that created and first implemented this file format. The company put together and maintains the current format specification, which is publicly available and allows the creation of products, programs, and processes that read and write files using the ZIP file format.

Even though there are other similar archiving formats, such as RAR and TAR files, the ZIP file format has quickly become a common standard for efficient data storage and for data exchange over computer networks.

ZIP files are everywhere. For example, office suites such as Microsoft Office and Libre Office rely on the ZIP file format as their document container file. This means that .docx, .xlsx, .pptx, .odt, .ods, and .odp files are actually ZIP archives containing several files and folders that make up each document. Other common files that use the ZIP format include .jar, .war, and .epub files.

You may be familiar with GitHub, which provides web hosting for software development and version control using Git. GitHub uses ZIP files to package software projects when you download them to your local computer. For example, you can download the exercise solutions for Python Basics: A Practical Introduction to Python 3 book in a ZIP file, or you can download any other project of your choice.

ZIP files allow you to aggregate, compress, and encrypt files into a single interoperable and portable container. You can stream ZIP files, split them into segments, make them self-extracting, and more.

Knowing how to create, read, write, and extract ZIP files can be a useful skill for developers and professionals who work with computers and digital information. Among other benefits, ZIP files allow you to:

Yes! Python has several tools that allow you to manipulate ZIP files. Some of these tools are available in the Python standard library. They include low-level libraries for compressing and decompressing data using specific compression algorithms, such as zlib, bz2, lzma, and others.

ZipFile implements the context manager protocol so that you can use the class in a with statement. This feature allows you to quickly open and work with a ZIP file without worrying about closing the file after you finish your work.

To get your working environment ready, place the downloaded resources into a directory called python-zipfile/ in your home folder. Once you have the files in the right place, move to the newly created directory and fire up a Python interactive session there.

The first argument to the initializer of ZipFile can be a string representing the path to the ZIP file that you need to open. This argument can accept file-like and path-like objects too. In this example, you use a string-based path.

In these examples, you use a conditional statement with is_zipfile() as a condition. This function takes a filename argument that holds the path to a ZIP file in your file system. This argument can accept string, file-like, or path-like objects. The function returns True if filename is a valid ZIP file. Otherwise, it returns False.

Now say you want to add hello.txt to a archive using ZipFile. To do that, you can use the write mode ("w"). This mode opens a ZIP file for writing. If the target ZIP file exists, then the "w" mode truncates it and writes any new content you pass in.

ZipInfo objects have several attributes that allow you to retrieve valuable information about the target member file. For example, .file_size and .compress_size hold the size, in bytes, of the original and compressed files, respectively. The class also has some other useful attributes, such as .filename and .date_time, which return the filename and the last modification date.

For example, you may have a ZIP file containing different types of member files (.docx, .xlsx, .txt, and so on). Instead of getting the complete information with .infolist(), you just need to get the information about the .docx files. Then you can filter the files by their extension and call .getinfo() on your .docx files only. Go ahead and give it a try!

To use .read(), you need to open the ZIP file for reading or appending. Note that .read() returns the content of the target file as a stream of bytes. In this example, you use .split() to split the stream into lines, using the line feed character "\n" as a separator. Because .split() is operating on a byte object, you need to add a leading b to the string used as an argument. also accepts a second positional argument called pwd. This argument allows you to provide a password for reading encrypted files. To try this feature, you can rely on the file that you downloaded with the material for this tutorial:

In the first example, you provide the password secret to read your encrypted file. The pwd argument accepts values of the bytes type. If you use .read() on an encrypted file without providing the required password, then you get a RuntimeError, as you can note in the second example.

In this example, you open hello.txt for reading. The first argument to .open() is name, indicating the member file that you want to open. The second argument is the mode, which defaults to "r" as usual. also accepts a pwd argument for opening encrypted files. This argument works the same as the equivalent pwd argument in .read().

You can also use .open() with the "w" mode. This mode allows you to create a new member file, write content to it, and finally append the file to the underlying archive, which you should open in append mode:

In the first code snippet, you open in append mode ("a"). Then you create new_hello.txt by calling .open() with the "w" mode. This function returns a file-like object that supports .write(), which allows you to write bytes into the newly created file.

In this example, you write b'Hello, World!' into new_hello.txt. When the execution flow exits the inner with statement, Python writes the input bytes to the member file. When the outer with statement exits, Python writes new_hello.txt to the underlying ZIP file,

The second code snippet confirms that new_hello.txt is now a member file of A detail to notice in the output of this example is that .write() sets the Modified date of the newly added file to 1980-01-01 00:00:00, which is a weird behavior that you should keep in mind when using this method.

As you learned in the above section, you can use the .read() and .write() methods to read from and write to member files without extracting them from the containing ZIP archive. Both of these methods work exclusively with bytes.

Because returns the content of the target member file as bytes, .decode() can operate on these bytes directly. The .decode() method decodes a bytes object into a string using a given character encoding format.

In the inner with statement in this example, you open the hello.txt member file from your archive. Then you pass the resulting binary file-like object, hello, as an argument to io.TextIOWrapper. This creates a buffered text stream by decoding the content of hello using the UTF-8 character encoding format. As a result, you get a stream of text directly from your target member file.

ZipFile.extract() allows you to accomplish the first task. This method takes the name of a member file and extracts it to a given directory signaled by path. The destination path defaults to the current directory:

When it comes to extracting all the member files from an archive, you can use .extractall(). As its name implies, this method extracts all the member files to a destination path, which is the current directory by default:

After running this code, all the current content of will be in your output_dir/ directory. If you pass a non-existing directory to .extractall(), then this method automatically creates the directory. Finally, if any of the member files already exist in the destination directory, then .extractall() will overwrite them without asking for your confirmation, so be careful.

If you only need to extract some of the member files from a given archive, then you can use the members argument. This argument accepts a list of member files, which should be a subset of the whole list of files in the archive at hand. Finally, just like .extract(), the .extractall() method also accepts a pwd argument to extract encrypted files.

The call to .close() closes archive for you. You must call .close() before exiting your program. Otherwise, some writing operations might not be executed. For example, if you open a ZIP file for appending ("a") new member files, then you need to close the archive to write the files.

Sometimes you need to create a ZIP archive from several related files. This way, you can have all the files in a single container for distributing them over a computer network or sharing them with friends or colleagues. To this end, you can create a list of target files and write them into an archive using ZipFile and a loop:

The for loop iterates over your list of input files and writes them into the underlying ZIP file using .write(). Once the execution flow exits the with statement, ZipFile automatically closes the archive, saving the changes for you. Now you have a archive containing all the files from your original list of files.

Bundling the content of a directory into a single archive is another everyday use case for ZIP files. Python has several tools that you can use with zipfile to approach this task. For example, you can use pathlib to read the content of a given directory. With that information, you can create a container archive using ZipFile. 041b061a72


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